19th century

From Academic Kids

Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical)

(18th century19th century20th centurymore centuries)

The 19th century lasted from 1801 to 1900 in the Gregorian calendar (using the Common Era system of year numbering). Common usage sometimes regards it as lasting from 1800 to 1899, but this is considered incorrect due to the nonexistence of a "Year Zero" before AD 1. The 19th century is also sometimes known as the eighteen hundreds (1800s), referring to the latter usage. Decades are almost always considered as starting with the "0" year and named accordingly ("1890s", etc.), so the first decade of a century technically overlaps back into the preceding one.

Historians sometime use "Nineteenth Century" as a label for the era stretching from 1815 (The Congress of Vienna) to 1914 (The outbreak of the First World War).



The 19th century continued and expanded the industrial revolution which had begun in the preceding century. It was a century of widespread invention and discovery, and one in which social, cultural, and economic systems were heavily affected by science and technology and the business models built on them, such as a shift from independent artisans and craftspersons to wage laborers employed by large factories as the primary means of production. It was the heyday of capitalism, but it was also the century in which the major opposing ideologies, socialism and communism, arose. The successes up to that time in building mechanical devices and in discovering the natural laws of the universe led to a widespread belief by the end of the century that the world ran predictably as by clockwork and that all of its mysteries would soon be solved by modern science; and, similarly, all of the social problems of human society could be solved too by application of scientific principles.

The religious revival of the Second Great Awakening in the eastern United States and Canada gave rise to unique, American, Christian religions during the era of Restorationism.


Significant people

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

List of 19th century inventions

Decades and years


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