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History of Serbia and Montenegro

From Academic Kids

In the 6th and 7th century Slav tribes from the basin between the Oder and Vistula rivers migrated south and settled in the Balkans, which were back then part of the Byzantine Empire.

Serbs fought many wars with the Byzantines and finally secured their independence. Serbian ruler (tsar) with highest achievements was Stefan Dusan. He drafted the Serbian law codes and opened new trade markets. Serbia flourished, featuring one of the most evolved countries and cultures in Europe.

The throne eventually passed to Lazar Hrebeljanović. Lazar was confronted by a Turkish emissary carrying a declaration of war. Lazar marched his army onto the Field of Kosovo (1389), that ended in a bloody draw. He turned back the invaders, but was killed along with his entire army. Belgrade finally fell to the Ottomans 7. Jul. 1521.

After enduring four centuries of Ottoman rule, Serbs raised in resistance in First Serbian Uprising (Serbian Први српски устанак). Famous leader of uprising was Đorđe Petrović, known much better for his nickname Karađorđe (Turkish for Black Đorđe). It started in February 1804. and ended in 1813., after Serbian territory was overrun by far more powerful Turkish army, triple the strength of uprisers.

Serbia achieved independence in 1878. It became a kingdom in 1882., and received its advanced and democratic Constitution in 1888.

In 1990's Serbia participated in a war with Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Although the war was never officially declared, Serbia under Slobodan Milosevic helped those countries in supplies.

In June of 1999, NATO and other troops, organized in KFor entered the province following the Kosovo War. Before the handover of power, some 300,000 Serbs and other non-Albanians were ethnically cleansed from the province. In March 17, 2004, unrest in Kosovo led to several deaths as Albanians clashed with Serbs.

In 2002, with the help of the European Union, Serbia and Montenegro agreed to rename Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and redefine relationships between them. They will have a parliament and an army in common, and during the three years (till 2005), neither Serbia nor Montenegro will hold a referendum on the break-up of the union. EU's high representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy Javier Solana has said that he is happy with the agreement, because it has stopped the disintegration progress in the former Yugoslav zone.

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