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List of historical national capitals

From Academic Kids

Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. This is a list of such cities, sorted by country and then by date.

See also:

Former capital city Country, empire Since Until Change, reason
Vlorë Albania 1912 1920 moved to Tirana
Melbourne Australia 1901 1927 moved to Canberra because of rivalry between Melbourne and Sydney
Vienna Holy Roman Empire s.XVI 1806 became in Austrian Empire
Vienna Austrian Empire 1815 1867 became in Austro-Hungarian Empire
Vienna Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867 1918 became in Republic of Austria
St. George Bermuda (Brit.)   1815 moved to Hamilton
Salvador da Bahia Brazil (Portuguese colony) 1549 1763 moved to Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro Brazil (Portuguese colony, Brazilian Empire and Republic) 1763 1960 moved to Brasília
Belize City British Honduras   1970 moved to Belmopan
Kingston Canada 1841 1843 moved to Montreal
Montreal  Canada 1843 1849 moved to Toronto
Toronto Canada 1849 1859 moved to Quebec City
Quebec City Canada 1859 1865 moved to Ottawa
Chan Santa Cruz Chan Santa Cruz c.1852 1901 became part of Mexico
Anyang China see: Capital of China
Chang'an
Chengdu
Chongqing
Datong
Hangzhou
Hao
Hsinking
Kaifeng
Luoyang
Nanjing
Ye
Léopoldville Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1960 1966 renamed Kinshasa
Grand Bassam Côte d'Ivoire 1893 1900 moved to Bingerville
Bingerville Côte d'Ivoire 1900 1933 moved to Abidjan
Abidjan Côte d'Ivoire 1933 1983 moved to Yamoussoukro
Ciudad Trujillo Dominican Republic 1930 1961 renamed Santo Domingo after the death of Trujillo
Roskilde Denmark 10th century 1443 moved to Copenhagen
Winchester England 10th century 12th century moved to London
Turku Finland (Grand Duchy) 13th century 1812 moved to Helsinki
Memphis Egypt      
Lavuka Fiji (Brit.)     moved to Suva
Vichy France 1940 1942 capital of Vichy France régime
Berlin German Empire 1871 1949 Separation of Germany to East and West Germany
Plön German Empire 1945 1945 Capital of the Dönitz government after Berlin was captured by the Soviet Union
East Berlin East Germany 1949 1990 Berlin, country ceased to exist after re-unification of Germany
Bonn West Germany 1949 1990 Berlin, country ceased to exist after re-unification of Germany
Cape Coast Gold Coast (Brit.)   1877 moved to Accra
Granada Granada, Kingdom of 1250 1492 Kingdom ceases to exist after the Castilian reconquest
Nafplion Greece 1821 1836 moved to Athens
Bolama Guinea-Bissau 1879 1941 moved to Bissau
Boe Guinea-Bissau 1973 1974 moved back to Bissau
Lahaina Hawaii (Hawaiian monarchy)   1840 moved to Honolulu
Calcutta India (British)   1912 moved to New Delhi
Simla India (British) Summer capital
Persepolis Iran (Persia) c.2500 B.C
Ctesiphon Iran
Tabriz Iran Safavid period moved to Qazvin (Being to close to the Ottoman border).
Qazvin Iran Safavid period moved to Isfahan
Isfahan Iran Safavid period moved to Shiraz
Shiraz Iran Zand dynasty moved to Tehran
Torino Italy, Kingdom of 1861 1865 moved to Florence
Florence Italy, Kingdom of 1865 1871 moved to Rome
Heijo-kyo (Nara) Japan (Nara period)   784  
Kyoto Japan   1868 moved to Tokyo (see also: Capital of Japan debate)
Alma-Atta Kazakhstan 1992 1993 renamed Almaty
Almaty (Alma-Atta) Kazakhstan 1993 1998 moved to Astana
Jerusalem Kingdom of Jerusalem 1099 1187 moved to Acre (Jerusalem captured by Saladin)
Acre Kingdom of Jerusalem 1187 1291 Kingdom ceases to exist
Kaunas Lithuania 1922 1940 moved back to Vilnius
Płock Masovia c.1038 1047 Masovia reincorporated into Poland
Płock Masovia 1138 1313 moved to Czersk
Czersk Masovia 1313 1413 moved to Warsaw
Warsaw Masovia 1413 1526 Masovia reincorporated into Poland
Iaşi Moldavia 1862 unified with Wallachia to form Romania
Cetinje Montenegro   1946 moved to Podgorica
Russell New Zealand 1840 1841 moved to Auckland
Auckland New Zealand 1841 1865 moved to Wellington
Lagos Nigeria   1991 moved to Abuja
Trondheim Norway 997 1070 moved to Bergen
Bergen Norway 1070 1299 moved to Oslo
Oslo Norway 1299 1624 renamed Christiania
Christiania Norway 1624 1924 renamed Oslo
Karachi Pakistan   1959 moved to Rawalpindi
Rawalpindi Pakistan   1967 moved to Islamabad
Gaza City State of Palestine   From September till October 1, 1948 moved to East Jerusalem
Quezon City Philippines 1948 1976 moved to Manila
Gniezno Poland 10th century 1038 moved to Krakow
Poznań Poland 10th century 1038 moved to Kraków
Kraków Poland 1038 1079 moved to Płock
Płock Poland 1079 1138 moved to Kraków
Kraków Poland 1138 1290 moved to Poznań
Poznań Poland 1290 1296 moved to Krakow
Kraków Poland 1296 1596 moved to Warsaw
Paris Poland 1939 1940 Government in exile
London Poland 1940 1990 Government in exile
Lublin Poland 1944 1945 de facto capital
Łódź Poland 1945 1947 de facto capital
Porto Portugal, County of 868 1071 Lost of Autonomy (Count Nuno mendes is defeated) when regained moved to Guimarăes in 1095
Guimarăes Portugal, County/Kingdom of 1095 12th century moved to Coimbra
Coimbra Portugal, Kingdom of 12th century 1255 moved to Lisbon
Lisbon Portugal, Kingdom of 1255 1808 moved to Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro Portugal, Kingdom of 1808 1821 moved to Lisbon
Moscow Russian Empire 13th century 1712 moved to Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg Russian empire 1712 1914 renamed Petrograd
Petrograd Russia 1914 1918 moved to Moscow
Dariyah Saudi state   1818 moved to Riyadh
Tulaghi Solomon Islands     moved to Honiara
Saigon South Vietnam 1954 1975 Hanoi, country ceased to exist after unification of Vietnam
Aden South Yemen 1967 1990 San'a, country ceased to exist after unification of Yemen
Valladolid Spain 1600 1606 moved to Madrid
San Sebastián Spain 19th century Summer capital
Valencia Spain 1936 1939 Government of the Second Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War
Columbia, Texas Republic of Texas 1836 1837 moved to Houston, Texas
Houston, Texas Republic of Texas 1837 1839 moved to Austin, Texas
Austin, Texas Republic of Texas 1839 1845 Texas annexed by United States
Aneho Togo 1880s 1897 moved to Lomé
Cluj Transylvania 1918 Unification with Romania.
San Jose de Oruńa (St. Joseph) Trinidad (Spanish) 1592 1783 moved to Puerto de Espańa (Port-of-Spain)
Philadelphia United States 1776 1776 moved to Baltimore
Baltimore United States 1776 1777 moved back to Philadelphia
Philadelphia United States 1777 1777 moved to Lancaster
Lancaster United States 1777 1777 moved to York after one day
York United States 1777 1778 moved back to Philadelphia
Philadelphia United States 1778 1783 moved to Princeton
Princeton United States 1783 1783 moved to Annapolis
Annapolis United States 1783 1784 moved to Trenton
Trenton United States 1784 1785 moved to New York
New York United States 1785 1790 moved back to Philadelphia
Philadelphia United States 1790 1800 moved to Washington, DC
Samarkand Uzbekistan (SSR) 1925 1930s moved to Tashkent
Bursa Ottoman empire 1335 1365 moved to Edirne
Edirne Ottoman empire 1365 1453 moved to Constantinople (Istanbul)
Constantinople Ottoman empire 1453 1923 country ceased to exist
Port-of-Spain West Indies Federation 1958 1962 country ceased to exist
Câmpulung Wallachia 13th century 15th century moved to Târgovişte
Târgovişte Wallachia 1698 moved to Bucharest
Taiz Yemen 1948 1962 moved to San'a
Mérida Yucatán 1840 1847 reunited with Mexico
pl:Historyczne stolice państw świata
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